Published Evidence

A selection of research papers relevant to PANDAS & PANS


1.          Abbasi SH, Hosseini F, Modabbernia A, Ashrafi M, Akhondzadeh S: Effect of celecoxib add-on treatment on symptoms and serum IL-6 concentrations in patients with major depressive disorder: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord 141:308–314, 2012.


2.          Alexander AA, Patel NJ, Southammakosane CA, Mortensen MM: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): An indication for tonsillectomy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 75:872–873, 2011.


3.          Ali SR, McDevitt H: Question 1: Does vitamin D supplementation prevent acute lower respiratory tract infections in children? Arch Dis Child 100:892–895, 2015.


4.          Allen AJ, Leonard HL, Swedo SE: Case study: A new infection triggered, autoimmune subtype of pediatric OCD and Tourette’s syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:307–311, 1995.


5.          Altenburg J, De Graaff CS, Van Der Werf TS, Boersma WG: Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics – Part 1: Biological mechanisms. Respiration 81:67–74, 2010a.


6.          Al-Zaidy SA, MacGregor D, Mahant S, Richardson SE, Bitnun A: Neurological complications of PCR-Proven M. pneumoniae Infections in Children: Prodromal illness duration may reflect pathogenetic mechanism. Clin Infect Dis 61:1092–1098, 2015.


7.          American Academy of Pediatrics: Group A streptococcal infections. In: Red Book. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 2015a. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
8.          American Academy of Pediatrics: Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other Mycoplasma species infections. In: Red Book. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 2015b.


9.          Antico A, Tampoia M, Tozzoli R, Bizzaro N. Can supplementation with vitamin D reduce the risk or modify the course of autoimmune diseases? A systematic review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev 12:127–36, 2012.


10.       Arabzadeh S, Ameli N, Zeinoddini A, Rezaei F, Farokhnia M, Mohammadinejad P, Ghaleiha A, Akhondzadeh S: Celecoxib adjunctive therapy for acute bipolar mania: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Bipolar Disord 17:606–614, 2015.


11.       Aron, A.M., Freeman, J.M., Carter, S., 1965. The natural history of sydenham’s chorea. review of the literature and long-term evaluation with emphasis on cardiac sequelae. The Am. J. Med. 38 (January), 83–95 PubMed PMID: 14247294; Eng.


12.       Ayaydin, H., Abali, O., 2010. Early antibiotic treatment in a child with PANDAS: a case report. Noropsikiyatri Arsivi 47 (2), 169–170.


13.       Ayoub E, Wannamaker L: Evaluation of the streptococcal desoxyribonuclease B and diphosphopyridine nucleotidase antibody tests in acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. Pediatrics 29:527–538, 1962.


14.       Bale JF, Jr: Virus and immune-mediated encephalitides: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Pediatr Neurol 53:3–12, 2015.


15.       Barash J, Margalith D, Matitiau A: Corticosteroid treatment in patients with Sydenham’s chorea. Pediatr Neurol 32:205–207, 2005.


16.       Batuecas Caletrío, Á, Sánchez González, F., Santa Cruz Ruiz, S., et al., 2008. PANDAS syndrome: A new tonsillectomy indication? Acta Otorrinolaringol. Esp. 59 (7), 362–363.


17.       Baugh RF, Archer SM, Mitchell RB, Rosenfeld RM, Amin R, Burns JJ, Darrow DH, Giordano T, Litman RS, Li KK, Mannix ME, Schwartz RH, Setzen G, Wald ER, Wall E, Sandberg G, Patel MM; American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation: Clinical practice guideline: Tonsillectomy in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 144:S1–S30, 2011.


18.       Baytunca, M.B., Donuk, T., Erermis, S., 2016. Evaluation of a neuropsychiatric disorder: from PANDAS to PANS and CANS. Turk. Psikiyatri Derg 27 (Summer (2)) PubMed PMID: 27370066.


19.       Becker, K., Holtmann, M., El-Faddagh, M., et al., 2004. Separation anxiety triggered by atypical neuroleptic medication in an adolescent with Tourette’s syndrome. Clinical Child Psychology Psychiatry. 9 (4), 597–603.


20.       Bejerot, S., Bruno, K., Gerland, G., et al., 2013. Misstänk PANDAS hos barn med akuta neuropsykiatriska symtom infektion bakom sjukdomen – Långvarig antibiotikabehandling bör övervägas. Lakartidningen 110 (41), 1803.


21.       Berman SM, Kuczenski R, McCracken JT, London ED: Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: A review. Mol Psychiatry 14:123–142, 2009.


22.       Beşiroǧlu, L., Aǧargün, M.Y., Ozbebit, O., et al., 2007. Therapeutic response to plasmapheresis in four cases with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorder triggered by streptococcal infections. Türk psikiyatri dergisi Turk. J. Psychiatry 18 (3), 270–276.


23.       Bharath V, Eckert K, Kang M, Chin-Yee IH, Hsia CC: Incidence and natural history of intravenous immunoglobulin-induced aseptic meningitis: A retrospective review at a single tertiary care center. Transfusion 55:2597–2605, 2015.


24.       Bodner, S.M., Morshed, S.A., Peterson, B.S., 2001. The question of PANDAS in adults. Biol. Psychiatry 49 (May (9)), 807–810 PubMed PMID: 11331090.


25.       Borcherding BG, Keysor CS, Rapoport JL, Elia J, Amass J: Motor/vocal tics and compulsive behaviors on stimulant drugs: Is there a common vulnerability? Psychiatry Res 33:83–94, 1990.


26.       Boseley, M.E., Gherson, S., Hartnick, C.J., 2007. Spasmodic dysphonia in an adolescent patient with an autoimmune neurologic disorder. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 28 (March–April (2)), 140–142. PubMed PMID: 17362824.


27.       Bradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, Alverson B, Carter ER, Harrison C, Kaplan SL, Mace SE, McCracken GH Jr, Moore MR, St Peter SD, Stockwell JA, Swanson JT; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America: The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: Clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 53:e25–e76, 2011.


28.       Brimberg L, Benhar I, Mascaro-Blanco A, Alvarez K, Lotan D, Winter C, Klein J, Moses AE, Somnier FE, Leckman JF, Swedo SE, Cunningham MW, Joel D: Behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities after streptococcal exposure: A novel rat model of Sydenham chorea and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:2076–2087, 2012.


29.       Brown K, Farmer C, Farhadian B, Hernandez J, Thienemann M, Frankovich J: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS)-Response to oral Corticosteroid burts: An observational study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017 [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0139.


30.       Brown K, Farmer C, Freeman GM, Spartz E, Farhadian B, Thienemann M, Frankovich J: Effect of early and prophylactic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on flare duration in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: An observational study of patients followed by an academic community-based PANS clinic. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017b. [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0193


31.       Browne, H.A., Hansen, S.N., Buxbaum, J.D., et al., 2015. Familial clustering of tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 72 (Aprail (4)), 359–366. PubMed PMID: 25692669.


32.       Brynska, A., Wolanczyk, T., 2004. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). A report of two cases. Psychiatr Pol. 38 (January–February (1)), 105–123 PubMed PMID: 15042736.


33.       Budman CL: The role of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of Tourette’s syndrome: An overview. Drugs 74:1177–1193, 2014.


34.       Burton, M.J., Glasziou, P.P., Chong, L.Y., et al., 2014. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 19 (November (11)), CD001802. PubMed PMID: 25407135.


35.       Calaprice, D., Tona, J., Murphy, T.K., 2017. Treatment of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric disorder in a large survey population. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol.(August). PubMed PMID: 28832181; eng.


36.       Calkin, C.V., Carandang, C.G., 2007. Certain eating disorders may be a neuropsychiatric manifestation of PANDAS: case report. J. Can. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry. 16 (3), 132–135.


37.       Candelario-Jalil E, Taheri S, Yang Y, Sood R, Grossetete M, Estrada EY, Fiebich BL, Rosenberg GA: Cyclooxygenase inhibition limits blood-brain barrier disruption following intracerebral injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:488–498, 2007.


38.       Cannell JJ, Grant WB, Holick MF: Vitamin D and inflammation. Dermatoendocrinol 6:e983401, 2015.
39.       Casey B, Vauss YC, Chused A, Swedo SE: Cognitive functioning in Sydenham’s chorea: Part 2. Executive functioning. Dev Neuropsychol 10:89–96, 1994a.


40.       Casey B, Vauss YC, Swedo SE: Cognitive functioning in Sydenham’s chorea: Part 1. Attentional processes. Dev Neuropsychol 10:75–88, 1994b.


41.       Casey JR, Kahn R, Gmoser D, Atlas E, Urbani K, Luber S, Pellman H, Pichichero ME: Frequency of symptomatic relapses of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children from 4 pediatric practices following penicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalosporin antibiotic treatment. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 47:549–554, 2008.


42.       Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Elia J, Marsh WL, Ritchie GF, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL: Controlled stimulant treatment of ADHD and comorbid Tourette’s syndrome: Effects of stimulant and dose. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:589–596, 1997.


43.       Celik, G., Tas, D.A., Varmis, D.A., et al., 2016. Vitamin D insufficiency in a boy with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Pediatr Int. 58 (July (7)), 646–648. PubMed PMID: 27388777.


44.       Cengel-Kultur, S.E., Cop, E., Kara, A., et al., 2009. The relationship between group A beta hemolytic streptococcal infection and psychiatric symptoms: a pilot study. Turk. J. Pediatr. 51 (July–August (4)), 317–324 PubMed PMID: 19950837.


45.       Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Lyme disease maps. 2016b. (Accessed March, 2017).


46.       Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Lyme disease: two-Twostep laboratory testing process. 2016c. (Accessed March, 2017).


47.       Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Seasonal influenza. Information for health professionals. 2016a. (Accessed March, 2017).


48.       Ceylan, M.F., Selek, S., Zeytinci, E., et al., 2011. A case of myoclonic symptoms after streptococcal infection: possible PANDAS variant. Noropsikiyatri Ars 48 (1), 85–87. PubMed PMID:  OS:000289561900016; English.


49.       Chang K, Frankovich J, Cooperstock M, Cunningham MW, Latimer ME, Murphy TK, Pasternack M, Thienemann M, Williams K, Walter J, Swedo SE: Clinical evaluation of youth with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference. PANS Collaborative Consortium. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:3–13, 2015.


50.       Charan J, Goyal JP, Saxena D, Yadav P: Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 3:300–303, 2012.


51.       Chartrand C, Leeflang MM, Minion J, Brewer T, Pai M: Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests: A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 156:500–511, 2012.


52.       Cherin P, Marie I, Michallet M, Pelus E, Dantal J, Crave JC, Delain JC, Viallard JF: Management of adverse events in the treatment of patients with immunoglobulin therapy: A review of evidence. Autoimmun Rev 15:71–81, 2016.


53.       Chiarello, F., Spitoni, S., Hollander, E., et al., 2017. An expert opinion on PANDAS/PANS: highlights and controversies. Int. J. Psychiatry Clin. Pract. 21 (Junuary (2)), 91–98. S. Sigra et al. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 86 (2018) 51–65, 63 PubMed PMID: 28498087.


54.       Chmelik, E., Awadallah, N., Hadi, F.S., et al., 2004. Varied presentation of PANDAS: a case series. Clin. Pediatrics 43 (4), 379–382.


55.       Clegg HW, Giftos PM, Anderson WE, Kaplan EL, Johnson DR: Clinical perineal streptococcal infection in children: Epidemiologic features, low symptomatic recurrence rate after treatment, and risk factors for recurrence. J Pediatrics 167:687–693, 2015.


56.       Coffey B, Wieland N: Tics, anxiety, and possible PANDAS in an adolescent. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:533–538, 2007. Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292:1969–1976, 2004.


57.       Cooperstock, M.S., Swedo, S.E., Pasternack, M.S., et al., 2017. Clinical management of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: Part III—Treatment and prevention of infections. J. Child. Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 2016.0151.


58.       Costa-Reis P, Nativ S, Isgro J, Rodrigues T, Yildirim-Toruner C, Starr A, Saiman L, Imundo L, Eichenfield A: Major infections in a cohort of 120 patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol 149:442–449, 2013.


59.       Cox CJ, Sharma M, Leckman JF, Zuccolo J, Zuccolo A, Kovoor A, Swedo SE, Cunningham MW: Brain human monoclonal autoantibody from Sydenham chorea targets dopaminergic neurons in transgenic mice and signals dopamine D2 receptor: Implications in human disease. J Immunol 191:5524–5541, 2013.


60.       Cox CJ, Zuccolo AJ, Edwards EV, Mascaro-Blanco A, Alvarez K, Stoner J, Chang K, Cunningham MW: Antineuronal antibodies in a heterogeneous group of youth and young adults with tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:76–85, 2015.


61.       Cunningham MW, Cox CJ: Autoimmunity against dopamine receptors in neuropsychiatric and movement disorders: A review of Sydenham chorea and beyond. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 216:90–100, 2016.
62.       Cutforth T, DeMille MM, Agalliu I, Agalliu D: CNS autoimmune disease after infections: Animal models, cellular mechanisms and genetic factors. Future Neurol 11:63–76, 2016.


63.       Da Silva JA, Jacobs JW, Kirwan JR, Boers M, Saag KG, Ines LB, de Koning EJ, Buttgereit F, Cutolo M, Capell H, Rau R, Bijlsma JW: Safety of low dose glucocorticoid treatment in rheumatoid arthritis: Published evidence and prospective trial data. Ann Rheum Dis 65:285–293, 2006.


64.       Dale RC, Gorman MP, Lim M: Autoimmune encephalitis in children: Clinical phenomenology, therapeutics, and emerging challenges. Curr Opin Neurol 30:1–11, 2017.


65.       Dalmau J, Lancaster E, Martinez-Hernandez E, Rosenfeld MR, Balice-Gordon R: Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Lancet Neurol 10:63–74, 2011.


66.       Dalsgaard S, Waltoft BL, Leckman JF, Mortensen PB: Maternal history of autoimmune disease and later development of Tourette syndrome in offspring. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 54:495–501, 2015.


67.       Danchin MH, Rogers S, Kelpie L, Selvaraj G, Curtis N, Carlin JB, Nolan TM, Carapetis JR: Burden of acute sore throat and group A streptococcal pharyngitis in school-aged children and their families in Australia. Pediatrics 120:950–957, 2007.


68.       Das, A., Radhakrishnan, A., 2012. A case of PANDAS with kleine-Levin type periodic hypersomnia. Sleep Med. 13 (March (3)), 319–320. sleep.2011.11.003. PubMed PMID: 22261244.


69.       Demesh D, Virbalas JM, Bent JP: The role of tonsillectomy in the treatment of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 141:272–275, 2015.


70.       Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM: Investigations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the United States: Trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance from 2006 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol 53:124–130, 2015.


71.       Dileepan T, Smith ED, Knowland D, Hsu M, Platt M, Bittner-Eddy P, Cohen B, Southern P, Latimer E, Harley E, Agalliu D, Cleary PP: Group A Streptococcus intranasal infection promotes CNS infiltration by streptococcal-specific Th17 cells. J Clin Invest 126:303–317, 2016.


72.       do Rosario-Campos, M.C., Leckman, J.F., Curi, M., et al., 2005. A family study of earlyonset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Ame J. Med. Genet. Part B, Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 136b (July (1)), 92–97. PubMed PMID: 15892140; eng.


73.       Doshi, S., Maniar, R., Banwari, G., 2015. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Indian J. Pediatr. 82 (May (5)), 480–481. PubMed PMID: 25502585.


74.       Dranitzki Z, Steiner I: PANDAS in siblings: A common risk? Eur J Neurol 14:e4, 2007.


75.       Duzova A, Bakkaloglu A: Central nervous system involvement in pediatric rheumatic diseases: Current concepts in treatment. Curr Pharm Des 14:1295–1301, 2008.


76.       Elia J, Dell ML, Friedman DF, Zimmerman RA, Balamuth N, Ahmed AA, Pati S: PANDAS with catatonia: A case report. Therapeutic response to lorazepam and plasmapheresis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1145–1150, 2005.


77.       Ellis MJ, Leddy J, Willer B: Multi-disciplinary management of athletes with post-concussion syndrome: An evolving pathophysiological approach. Front Neurol 7:136, 2016.


78.       Ercan, E.T., Ercan, G., Severge, B., et al., 2008. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and obsessive-compulsive disease: A case report. J. Child. Neurology. 23 (3), 338–340.


79.       Eshel G, Lahat E, Azizi E, Gross B, Aladjem M: Chorea as a manifestation of rheumatic fever—a 30-year survey (1960–1990). Eur J Pediatr 152:645–646, 1993.


80.       Falcini F, Lepri G, Rigante D, Bertini F, Matucci Cerinic M: FPReSFINAL-2252: Descriptive analysis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with Streptococcus infection (PANDAS) in a cohort of 65 Italian patients. Pediatr Rheumatol 11 (Suppl 2):242, 2013.


81.       Fallon B, Nields J, Parsons B, Liebowitz MR, Klein DF: Psychiatric manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Psychiatry 54:263–268, 1993.


82.       Fallon BA, Kochevar JM, Gaito A, Nields JA: The underdiagnosis of neuropsychiatric Lyme disease in children and adults. Psychiatr Clin North Am 21:693–703, 1998.


83.       Fallon BA, Nields JA: Lyme disease: A neuropsychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 151:1571–1583, 1994.


84.       Fazekas F, Deisenhammer F, Strasser-Fuchs S, Nahler G, Mamoli B: Randomised placebo-controlled trial of monthly intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Austrian Immunoglobulin in Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Lancet 349:589–593, 1997.


85.       Fernández Ibieta, M., Ramos Amador, J.T., Auñón Martín, I., et al., 2005. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci: a case report. Anales de Pediatria. 62 (5), 475–478.


86.       Ferrafiat, V., Raffin, M., Gianniteli, M., et al., 2017. Autoimmune disorders and psychiatry in youth. Neuropsychiatrie de l’Enfance et de l’Adolescence. 65 (2), 99–109.


87.       Fonseca, L., Guerra, J., Neves, N., et al., 2010. PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection): a case report. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 22 (Summer (3)). 352f e9-e10, PubMed PMID: 20686150.


88.       Frankovich J, Swedo S, Murphy T, Dale RC, Agalliu D, Williams K, Daines M, Hornig M, Chugani H, Sanger T, Muscal E, Pasternack M, Cooperstock M, Gans H, Zhang Y, Cunningham M, Bernstein G, Bromberg R, Willett T, Brown K, Farhadian B, Chang K, Geller D, Hernandez J, Sherr J, Shaw R, Latimer E,Leckman J, Thienemann M: Clinical management of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): Part II–Use of immunomodulatory therapies. J Child Adolesc Psychopharm 2017 [E-pub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0148.


89.       Frankovich J, Thienemann M, Pearlstein J, Crable A, Brown K, Chang K: Multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to treating youth with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: Presenting characteristics of the first 47 consecutive patients. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:38–47, 2015.


90.       Frankovich, J., Swedo, S., Murphy, T., et al., 2017. Clinical management of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome: Part II—use of immunomodulatory therapies. J. Child. Adolesc. Psychopharmacol.


91.       Frankovich, J., Thienemann, M., Rana, S., et al., 2015. Five youth with pediatric acuteonset neuropsychiatric syndrome of differing etiologies. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 25 (February (1)), 31–37. PubMed PMID: 25695942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4442568.


92.       Fusco FR, Pompa A, Bernardi G, Ottaviani F, Giampa C, Laurenti D, Morello M, Bernardini S, Nuccetelli M, Sabatini U, Paolucci S: A case of PANDAS treated with tetrabenazine and tonsillectomy. J Child Neurol 25:614–615, 2010.


93.       Gabbay, V., Coffey, B., 2003. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s disorder, or pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in an adolescent? diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. J. Child Adolesc.Psychopharmacol. 13 (Fall (3)), 209–212. PubMed PMID: 14642008.


94.       Garvey MA, Perlmutter SJ, Allen AJ, Hamburger S, Lougee L, Leonard HL, Witowski ME, Dubbert B, Swedo SE: A pilot study of penicillin prophylaxis for neuropsychiatric exacerbations triggered by streptococcal infections. Biol Psychiatry 45:1564–1571, 1999.


95.       Garvey MA, Snider LA, Leitman SF, Werden R, Swedo SE: Treatment of Sydenham’s chorea with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, or prednisone. J Child Neurol 20:424–429, 2005.


96.       Gaughan T, Buckley A, Hommer R, Grant P, Williams K, Leckman JF, Swedo SE: Rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). J Clin Sleep Med 12:1027–1032, 2016.


97.       Geller DA, Biederman J, Stewart SE, Mullin B, Martin A, Spencer T, Faraone SV: Which SSRI? A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy trials in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 160:1919–1928, 2003.


98.       Geller DA, March J: Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51:98–113, 2012.


99.       Gerardi, D.M., Casadonte, J., Patel, P., et al., 2015. PANDAS and comorbid kleine-levin syndrome. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 25 (February (1)), 93–98. PubMed PMID: 25329605; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4340647.


100.     Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB, Gewitz M, Rowley AH, Shulman ST, Taubert KA: Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis. Circulation 119:1541–1551, 2009.


101.     Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, Garvey MA, Perlmutter S, Swedo SE: MRI assessment of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder or tics associated with streptococcal infection. Am J Psychiatry 157:281–283, 2000.


102.     Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, Leonard HL, Richter D, Swedo SE: Case study: Acute basal ganglia enlargement and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an adolescent boy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:913–915, 1996.


103.     Giedd, J.N., Rapoport, J.L., Kruesi, M.J., et al., 1995. Sydenham’s chorea: magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia. Neurology 45 (December (12)), 2199–2202 PubMed PMID: 8848193; Eng.


104.     Golden NH, Katzman DK, Sawyer SM, Ornstein RM, Rome ES, Garber AK, Kohn M, Kreipe RE: Update on the medical management of eating disorders in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 56:370–375, 2015.


105.     Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC: Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 22:12, 2015.


106.     Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Delgado P, Heninger GR, Charney DS: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. II. Validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46:1012–1016, 1989.


107.     Grados MA, Riddle MA: Pharmacological treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: From theory to practice. J Clin Child Psychol 30:67–79, 2001.


108.     Grant, J.E., 2014. Clinical practice: obsessive-compulsive disorder. N. Engl. J. Med. 371 (August (7)), 646–653. PubMed PMID: 25119610.


109.     Graus F, Titulaer MJ, Balu R, Benseler S, Bien CG, Cellucci T, Cortese I, Dale RC, Gelfand JM, Geschwind M, Glaser CA, Honnorat J, Hoftberger R, Iizuka T, Irani SR, Lancaster E, Leypoldt F, Pruss H, Rae-Grant A, Reindl M, Rosenfeld MR, Rostasy K, Saiz A, Venkatesan A, Vincent A, Wandinger KP, Waters P, Dalmau J: A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Lancet Neurol 15:391–404, 2016.


110.     Greenberg, R., 2014. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections/pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes vs. pediatric bipolar disorder – a possible connection? Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 20 (3), 49–54.


111.     Gromark, C., Harris, R. A., Wickstrom, R., et al., 2019.  Establishing a Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Clinic: Baseline Clinical Features of the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Cohort at Karolinska Institutet. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 1-9


112.     Gul M, Okur E, Ciragil P, Yildirim I, Aral M, Akif Kilic M: The comparison of tonsillar surface and core cultures in recurrent tonsillitis. Am J Otolaryngol 28:17317–17326, 2007.


113.     Gunville CF, Mourani PM, Ginde AA: The role of vitamin D in prevention and treatment of infection. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 12:239–245, 2013.


114.     Guy W: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. Rockville (Maryland), U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute of Mental Health, Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, 1976.


115.     Hachiya Y, Miyata R, Tanuma N, Hongou K, Tanaka K, Shimoda K, Kanda S, Hoshino A, Hanafusa Y, Kumada S, Kurihara E, Hayashi M: Autoimmune neurological disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. Brain Dev 35:670–674, 2013.


116.     Hahn BH, McMahon MA, Wilkinson A, Wallace WD, Daikh DI, Fitzgerald JD, Karpouzas GA, Merrill JT, Wallace DJ, Yazdany J, Ramsey-Goldman R, Singh K, Khalighi M, Choi SI, Gogia M, Kafaja S, Kamgar M, Lau C, Martin WJ, Parikh S, Peng J, Rastogi A, Chen W, Grossman JM: American College of Rheumatology guidelines for screening, treatment, and management of lupus nephritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 64:797–808, 2012.


117.     Hahn BH, Singh RR, Wong WK, Tsao BP, Bulpitt K, Ebling FM: Treatment with a consensus peptide based on amino acid sequences in autoantibodies prevents T cell activation by autoantigens and delays disease onset in murine lupus. Arthritis Rheum 44:432–441, 2001.


118.     Hale L, Guan S: Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic literature review. Sleep Med Rev 21:50–58, 2015.


119.     Hamilos DL: Chronic rhinosinusitis: Management. In: UpToDate. Edited by Post, TW. Waltham, MA, UpToDate, 2016.


120.     Hashkes PJ, Laxer RM: Medical treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. JAMA 294:1671–1684, 2005.
121.     Heubi, C., Shott, S.R., 2003. PANDAS: pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections–an uncommon, but important indication for tonsillectomy. Int. J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 67 (August (8)), 837–840 PubMed PMID: 12880661.


122.     Hirschtritt ME, Hammond CJ, Luckenbaugh D, Buhle J, Thurm AE, Casey BJ, Swedo SE: Executive and attention functioning among children in the PANDAS subgroup. Child Neuropsychol 15:179–194, 2009.


123.     Hoekstra PJ, Minderaa RB, Kallenberg CG: Lack of effect of intravenous immunoglobulins on tics: A double-blind placebo controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 65:537–542, 2004


124.     Hoffman KL, Hornig M, Yaddanapudi K, Jabado O, Lipkin WI: A murine model for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. J Neurosci 24:1780–1791, 2004.


125.     Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society: Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:1911–1930, 2011.


126.     Hollis, C., Pennant, M., Cuenca, J., et al., 2016. Clinical effectiveness and patient perspectives of different treatment strategies for tics in children and adolescents with tourette syndrome: a systematic review and qualitative analysis. Health Technol. Assess. 20 (4).


127.     Hopkins K, Crosland P, Elliott N, Bewley S: Diagnosis and management of depression in children and young people: Summary of updated NICE guidance. BMJ 350:h824, 2015.


128.     Hornig M, Lipkin WI: Immune-mediated animal models of Tourette syndrome. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37:1120–1138, 2013.


129.     Hornig M: The role of microbes and autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illness. Curr Opin Rheumatol 25:488–795, 2013.
130.     Hughes RA, Swan AV, van Doorn PA: Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD002063, 2014.
131.     Husby G, van de Rijn I, Zabriskie JB, Abdin ZH, Williams RC, Jr: Antibodies reacting with cytoplasm of subthalamic and caudate nuclei neurons in chorea and acute rheumatic fever. J Exp Med 144:1094–1110, 1976.
132.     Ignacio A, Morales CI, Caˆmara NO, Almeida RR: Innate sensing of the gut microbiota: Modulation of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol 7:54–65, 2016.
133.     Iniguez MA, Punzon C, Fresno M: Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 on activated T lymphocytes: Regulation of T cell activation by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. J Immunol 163:111–119, 1999.
134.     Johnson DR, Kurlan R, Leckman J, Kaplan EL: The human immune response to streptococcal extracellular antigens: Clinical, diagnostic, and potential pathogenetic implications. Clin Infect Dis 50:481–490, 2010.
135.     Jones H F., Ho, A.C., Sharma, S., et al., 2019. Maternal thyroid autoimmunity associated with acute-onset neuropsychiatric disorders and global regression in offspring. J. Dev Med & Child Neurol. (February (5)) ttps://
136.     Jones JD, Lebowitz ER, Marin CE, Stark KD: Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety symptoms in mothers and children. J Child Adolesc Mental Health 27:41–51, 2015.
137.     Jones JV, Robinson MF, Parciany RK, Layfer LF, McLeod B: Therapeutic plasmapheresis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Effect on immune complexes and antibodies to DNA. Arthritis Rheum 24:1113–1120, 1981.
138.     Kaplan E, Ferrieri P, Wannamaker L: Comparison of the antibody response to streptococcal cellular and extracellular antigens in acute pharyngitis. J Pediatr 84:21–28, 1974.
139.     Kaplan EL, Huew BB: The sensitivity and specificity of an agglutination test for antibodies to streptococcal extracellular antigens: A quantitative analysis and comparison of the Streptozyme test with the anti-streptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B tests. J Pediatr 96:367–373, 1980.
140.     Kaplan EL, Rothermel CD, Johnson DR: Antistreptolysin O and antideoxyribonuclease B titers: Normal values for children ages 2 to 12 in the United States. Pediatrics 101:86–88, 1998.
141.     Kaplan EL, Top FH Jr, Dudding BA, Wannamaker LW: Diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis: Differentiation of active infection from the carrier state in the symptomatic child. J Infect Dis 123:490–501, 1971.
142.     Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., Tait, A., 2007. Chain reaction or time bomb: A europsychiatricdevelopmental/neurodevelopmental formulation of tourettisms, pervasive developmental disorder, and schizophreniform symptomatology associated with PANDAS. World J. Biol. Psychiatry. 8 (3), 201–207.


143.     Kirvan CA, Cox CJ, Swedo SE, Cunningham MW: Tubulin is a neuronal target of autoantibodies in Sydenham’s chorea. J Immunol 178:7412–7421, 2007.


144.     Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Heuser JS, Cunningham MW: Mimicry and autoantibody-mediated neuronal cell signaling in Sydenham chorea. Nat Med 9:914–920, 2003.


145.     Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Kurahara D, Cunningham MW: Streptococcal mimicry and antibody-mediated cell signaling in the pathogenesis of Sydenham’s chorea. Autoimmunity 39:21–29, 2006a.


146.     Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Snider LA, Cunningham MW: Antibody mediated neuronal cell signaling in behavior and movement disorders. J Neuroimmunol 179:173–179, 2006b.


147.     Kovacevic, M., Grant, P., Swedo, S.E., 2015. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of twelve youths with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 25 (February(1)), 65–69. PubMed PMID: 25658609; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4340809.


148.     Kronman MP, Zhou C, Mangione-Smith R: Bacterial prevalence and antimicrobial prescribing trends for acute respiratory tract infections. Pediatrics 134:e956–e965, 2014.
149.     Kuluva, J., Hirsch, S., Coffey, B., 2008. PANDAS and paroxysms: A case of conversion disorder? J. Child Adolescent Psychopharmacol. 18 (1), 109–115. 10.1089/cap.2007.1813.
150.     Kumar A, Williams MT, Chugani HT: Evaluation of basal ganglia and thalamic inflammation in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection and Tourette syndrome: A positron emission tomographic (PET) study using 11C-[R]-PK11195. J Child Neurol 30:749–756, 2015.
151.     Kuppuswamy PS, Takala CR, Sola CL: Management of psychiatric symptoms in anti-NMDAR encephalitis: A case series, literature review and future directions. GenHospital Psychiatry 36:388–391, 2014.
152.     Kurlan R, Johnson D, Kaplan EL; Tourette Syndrome Study Group: Streptococcal infection and exacerbations of childhood tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A prospective blinded cohort study. Pediatrics 121:1188–1197, 2008.
153.     Latimer ME, L’Etoile N, Seidlitz J, Swedo SE: Therapeutic plasmapheresis as a treatment for 35 severely ill children and adolescents with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:70–75, 2015.
154.     Lawrence, R., Baggott, J., 2017. Autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection. Prog. Neurol. Psychiatry 21 (1), 26–29. 460.
155.     Leach JP, Chadwick DW, Miles JB, Hart IK: Improvement in adult onset Rasmussen’s encephalitis with long-term immunomodulatory therapy. Neurology 52:738–742, 1999.
156.     Lean WL, Arnup S, Danchin M, Steer AC: Rapid diagnostic tests for group A streptococcal pharyngitis: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 134:771–781, 2014.
157.     Lebowitz ER, Omer H, Hermes H, Scahill L: Parent training for childhood anxiety disorders: The SPACE Program. Cogn Behav Pract 21:456–469, 2014.
158.     Lebowitz ER, Vitulano LA, Mataix-Cols D, Leckman JF: Editorial perspective: When OCD takes over.the family! Coercive and disruptive behaviours in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:1249–1250, 2011.
159.     Leckman JF, King RA, Gilbert DL, Coffey BJ, Singer HS, Dure LS 4th, Grantz H, Katsovich L, Lin H, Lombroso PJ, Kawikova I, Johnson DR, Kurlan RM, Kaplan EL: Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive compulsive symptoms: A prospective longitudinal study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:108–118, 2011.
160.     Lee JH, Uhl JR, Cockerill FR 3rd, Weaver AL, Orvidas LJ: Real-time PCR vs standard culture detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci at various anatomic sites in tonsillectomy patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134:1177–1181, 2008.
161.     Leslie DL, Kozma L, Martin A, Landeros A, Katsovich L, King RA, Leckman JF: Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: A case-control study among privately insured children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:1166–1172, 2008.
162.     Lewin AB, Storch EA, Murphy TK: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in identical siblings. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 21:177–182, 2011.
163.     Lewin AB, Storch EA, Mutch PJ, Murphy TK: Neurocognitive functioning in youth with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 23:391–398, 2011.
164.     Lin H, Williams KA, Katsovich L, Findley DB, Grantz H, Lombroso PJ, King RA, Bessen DE, Johnson D, Kaplan EL, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Zhang H, Leckman JF: Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 67:684–691, 2010.
165.     Lloyd R, Tippmann-Peikert M, Slocumb N, Kotagal S: Characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder in childhood. J Clin Sleep Med 8:127–131, 2012.
166.     Lock J: An update on evidence-based psychosocial treatments for eating disorders in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 44:707–721, 2015.
167.     Logan LK, McAuley JB, Shulman ST: Macrolide treatment failure in streptococcal pharyngitis resulting in acute rheumatic fever. Pediatrics 129:e798–e802, 2012.
168.     Lotan D, Benhar I, Alvarez K, Mascaro-Blanco A, Brimberg L, Frenkel D, Cunningham MW, Joel D: Behavioral and neural effects of intra-striatal infusion of anti-streptococcal antibodies in rats. Brain Behav Immun 38:249–262, 2014.
169.     Luo F, Leckman JF, Katsovich L, Findley D, Grantz H, Tucker DM, Lombroso PJ, King RA, Bessen DE: Prospective longitudinal study of children with tic disorders and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder: Relationship of symptom exacerbations to newly acquired streptococcal infections. Pediatrics 113:e578–e585, 2004.
170.     Lynch, N.E., Deiratany, S., Webb, D.W., et al., 2006. PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with Streptococcal infection). Iran Med. J. 100 (1), 155.
171.     Mackenzie IRA, Munoz DG: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and Alzheimer type pathology in aging. Neurology 50:986–990, 1998.
172.     Magro-Checa C, Zirkzee EJ, Huizinga TW, Steup-Beekman GM: Management of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: Current approaches and future perspectives. Drugs 76:459–483, 2016.
173.     Maguire, G.A., Viele, S.N., Agarwal, S., et al., 2010. Stuttering onset associated with streptococcal infection: a case suggesting stuttering as PANDAS. Ann. Clin. Psychiatry. 22 (November (4)), 283–284 PubMed PMID: 21180660.


174.     Mahony, T., Sidell, D., Gans, H., et al., 2017. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms in youth following resolution of sinusitis. Int. J. Pediatric Otorhinolaryngol. 92, 38–44.


175.     Maini, B., Bathla, M., Dhanjal, G.S., et al., 2012. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection. Indian J. Psychiatry. 54 (October (4)), 375–377. PubMed PMID: 23372243; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3554972.


176.     March JS, Mulle K: OCD in Children & Adolescents: A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Manual. New York, Guilford Press, 1998.


177.     Marchisio P, Consonni D, Baggi E, Zampiero A, Bianchini S, Terranova L, Tirelli S, Esposito S, Principi N: Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:1055–1060, 2013.


178.     Martinelli, P., Ambrosetto, G., Minguzzi, E., et al., 2002. Late-onset PANDAS syndrome with abdominal muscle involvement. European Neurology. 48 (1), 49–51. http://dx.
179.     Martino D, Chiarotti F, Buttiglione M, Cardona F, Creti R, Nardocci N, Orefici G, Veneselli E, Rizzo R; Italian Tourette Syndrome Study Group: The relationship between group A streptococcal infections and Tourette syndrome: A study on a large service-based cohort. Dev Med Child Neurol 53:951–957, 2011.


180.     Mataix-Cols, D., Fernandez de la Cruz, L., Nordsletten, A.E., et al., 2016. Towards an international expert consensus for defining treatment response, remission, recovery and relapse in obsessive-compulsive disorder. World Psychiatry 15 (February (1)), 80–81. PubMed PMID: 26833615; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4780290.


181.     McCarty M: The antibody response to streptococcal infections. In: Streptococcal Infections. Edited by McCarty M. New York: Columbia University Press, 1954, pp. 130–142.


182.     Medjo B, Atanaskovic-Markovic M, Radic S, Nikolic D, Lukac M, Djukic S: Mycoplasma pneumoniae as a causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and laboratory diagnosis. Ital J Pediatr 40:104, 2014.


183.     Mell LK, Davis RL, Owens D: Association between streptococcal infection and obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, and tic disorder. Pediatrics 116:56–60, 2005.


184.     Miranda A, Blanca M, Vega JM, Moreno F, Carmona MJ, Garcı´a JJ, Segurado E, Justicia JL, Juarez C: Cross-reactivity between a penicillin and a cephalosporin with the same side chain. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:671–677, 1996.


185.     Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., et al., 2009. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 21 (July (339)), b2535. PubMed PMID: 19622551; PubMed CentralPMCID: PMCPMC2714657.


186.     Moore M: Bedtime problems and night wakings: Treatment of behavioural insomnia of childhood. J Clin Psychology 66:1195–1204, 2010.


187.     Morer, A., Massana, J., 2000. Alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas a tics, TOC y PANDAS. Med. Clin. 114 (17), 665–668.


188.     Motluck A: A feverish debate: Are common bacterial infections making children mentally ill? Walrus 6:38–47, 2013.


189.     Mu¨ller N, Riedel M, Blendinger C, Oberle K, Jacobs E, Abele-Horn M: Childhood Tourette’s syndrome and infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Am J Psychiatry 157:481–482, 2000.


190.     Mu¨ller N, Riedel M, Blendinger C, Oberle K, Jacobs E, Abele-Horn M: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and Tourette’s syndrome. Psychiatry Res 129:119–125, 2004.


191.     Mu¨ller N, Ulmschneider M, Scheppach C, Schwarz MJ, Ackenheil M, Mo¨ller HJ, Gruber R, Riedel M: COX-2 inhibition as a treatment approach in schizophrenia: Immunological considerations and clinical effects of celecoxib add-on therapy. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254:14–22, 2004.


192.     Mufson L, Dorta K, Wickramaratne P, Nomura Y, Olfson M, Weissman MM: A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy fordepressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61: 577–584, 2004.


193.     Muir, K.E., McKenney, K.S., Connolly, M.B., et al., 2013. A case report of obsessivecompulsive disorder following acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics 132 (3), e771–e774.


194.     Murphy BS, Sundareshan V, Cory TJ, Hayes D, Anstead MI, Feola DJ: Azithromycin alters macrophage phenotype. J Antimicrob Chemother 61:554–560, 2008.


195.     Murphy ML, Pichichero M: Prospective identification and treatment of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156:356–361, 2002.


196.     Murphy T, Brennan E, Johnco C, Parker-Athill E, Miladinovic B, Storch E, Lewin A: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of azithromycin in youth with acute obsessive compulsive disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017. [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0190
197.     Murphy TK, Eric A, Storch EA, Lewin AB, Edge PJ, Goodman WK: Clinical factors associated with PANDAS. J Pediatr 160:314–319, 2012.


198.     Murphy TK, Gerardi DM, Leckman JF: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome. Psychiatr Clin N Am 37:353–374, 2014.


199.     Murphy TK, Lewin AB, Parker-Athill EC, Storch EA, Mutch PJ: Tonsillectomies and adenoidectomies do not prevent the onset of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A Streptococcus. Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:834–838, 2013.


200.     Murphy TK, Lewin AB, Storch EA, Stock S: Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with tic disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 52:1341–1359, 2013.


201.     Murphy TK, Parker-Athill EC, Lewin AB, Storch EA, Mutch PJ: Cefdinir for recent-onset pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:57–64, 2015.


202.     Murphy TK, Patel PD, McGuire JF, Kennel A, Mutch PJ, Parker-Athill EC, Hanks CE, Lewin AB, Storch EA, Toufexis MD, Dadlani GH, Rodriguez CA: Characterization of the pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome phenotype. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:14–25, 2015.


203.     Murphy TK, Sajid M, Soto O, Shapira N, Edge P, Yang M, Lewis MH, Goodman WK: Detecting pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics. Biol Psychiatry 55:61–68, 2004.


204.     Murphy TK, Snider LA, Mutch PJ, Harden E, Zaytoun A, Edge PJ, Storch EA, Yang MC, Mann G, Goodman WK, Swedo SE: Relationship of movements and behaviors to Group A Streptococcus infections in elementary school children. Biol Psychiatry 61:279–284, 2007.


205.     Murphy TK, Storch EA, Strawser MS: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced behavioral activation in the PANDAS subtype. Primary Psychiatry 13:87, 2006.


206.     Murphy TK, Storch EA, Turner A, Reid JM, Tan J, Lewin AB: Maternal history of autoimmune disease in children presenting with tics and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Neuroimmunol 229:243– 247, 2010.


207.     Murphy, M.L., Pichichero, M.E., 2002. Prospective identification and treatment of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 156 (4), 356–361.


208.     Nadeau, J.M., Jordan, C., Selles, R.R., et al., 2015. A pilot trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of antibiotic treatment in youth with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome-related obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 25 (May(4)), 337–343.


209.     Napolitani G, Acosta-Rodriguez E V., Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F: Prostaglandin E2 enhances Th17 responses via modulation of IL-17 and IFN-c production by memory CD4+ T cells. Eur J Immunol 39:1301–1312, 2009.


210.     Navkhare, P., Kalra, G., 2014. The curious case of the inseparable child. Indian J. Psychiatry 56 (July(3)), 292–294. PubMed PMID: 25316942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4181186.


211.     Neuwelt CM: The role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of severe central nervous system neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Ther Apher Dial 7:173–182, 2003.


212.     Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Beiser AS, Burns JC, Bastian J, Chung KJ, Colan SD, Duffy CE, Fulton DR, Glode MP, Mason WH, Meissner HC, Rowley AH, Shulman ST, Reddy V, Sundel RP, Wiggins JW, Colton T, Melish ME, Rosen FS: A Single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome. N Engl J Med 324:1633–1639, 1991.


213.     Nicolson R, Swedo SE, Lenane M, Bedwell J, Wudarsky M, Gochman P, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL: An open trial of plasma exchange in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder without poststreptococcal exacerbations. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:1313–1315, 2000.


214.     Norman KR, Silverman WK, Lebowitz ER: Family accommodation of child and adolescent anxiety: Mechanisms, assessment, and treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 28:131–140, 2015.


215.     Nosadini M, Mohammad SS, Ramanathan S, Brilot F, Dale RC: Immune therapy in autoimmune encephalitis: A systematic review. Expert Rev Neurother 15:1391–1419, 2015.


216.     Nosadini M, Mohammad SS, Suppiej A, Sartori S, Dale RC: Intravenous immunoglobulin in paediatric neurology: Safety, adherence to guidelines, and long-term outcome. Dev Med Child Neurol 58:1180–1192, 2016.


217.     Nseir W, Mograbi J, Abu-Rahmeh Z, Mahamid M, Abu-Elheja O, Shalata A: The association between vitamin D levels and recurrent group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in adults. Int J Infect Dis 16:e735–e738, 2012.


218.     O’ Mahony SM, Stilling RM, Dinan TG, Cryan JF: The microbiome and childhood diseases: Focus on brain-gut axis. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 105:296–313, 2015.


219.     O’Dwyer K, Hackel M, Hightower S, Hoban D, Bouchillon S, Qin D, Aubart K, Zalacain M, Butler D: Comparative analysis of the antibacterial activity of a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor, GSK1322322. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:2333–2342, 2013.


220.     O’Sullivan JB, Ryan KM, Harkin A, Connor TJ: Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors inhibit expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES and cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the CNS following a systemic inflammatory challenge. J Neuroimmunol 220:34–42, 2010.


221.     Obregon D, Parker-Athill EC, Tan J, Murphy T: Psychotropic effects of antimicrobials and immune modulation by psychotropics: Implications for neuroimmune disorders. Neuropsychiatry (London) 2:331–343, 2012.


222.     Orange JS, Hossny EM, Weiler CR, Ballow M, Berger M, Bonilla FA, Buckley R, Chinen J, El-Gamal Y, Mazer BD, Nelson RP, Jr, Patel DD, Secord E, Sorensen RU, Wasserman RL, Cunningham-Rundles C: Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in human disease: A review of evidence by members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:S525–S553, 2006


223.     Orlovska, S., Vestergaard, C.H., Bech, B.H., et al., 2017. Association of streptococcal throat infection with mental disorders: testing key aspects of the PANDAS hypothesis in a nationwide study. JAMA Psychiatry(May (24)). PubMed PMID: 28538981.


224.     Orvidas, L.J., Slattery, M.J., 2001. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders and streptococcal infections: role of otolaryngologist. Laryngoscope 111 (September (9)), 1515–1519. PubMed PMID: 11568599.


225.     Pavone P, Rapisarda V, Serra A, Nicita F, Spalice A, Parano E, Rizzo R, Maiolino L, Di Mauro P, Vitaliti G, Coco A, Falsaperla A, Trifiletti RR, Cocuzza S: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group a streptococcal infection: The role of surgical treatment. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 27:371–378, 2014.


226.     Pavone, P., Falsaperla, R., Nicita, F., et al., 2019. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS): Clinical Manifestations, IVIG Treatment Outcomes, Results from a Cohort of Italian Patients  Neuropsychiatry (London) (2018) 8(3), 854–860.


227.     Paz JA, Silva CAA, Marques-Dias MJ: Randomized double-blind study with prednisone in Sydenham’s chorea. Pediatr Neurol 34:264–269, 2006.


228.     Peelen E, Knippenberg S, Muris AH, Thewissen M, Smolders J, Tervaert JW, Hupperts R, Damoiseaux J: Effects of vitamin D on the peripheral adaptive immune system: A review. Autoimmun Rev 10:733–743, 2011.


229.     Perez-Vigil, A., Fernandez de la Cruz, L., Brander, G., et al., 2016. The link between autoimmune diseases and obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders: a systematic review. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 71 (December), 542–562. ttp:// PubMed PMID: 27687817.
230.     Perlmutter SJ, Leitman SF, Garvey MA, Hamburger S, Feldman E, Leonard HL, Swedo SE: Therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin for obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorders in childhood. Lancet 354:1153–1158, 1999.


231.     Perrin EM, Murphy ML, Casey JR, Pichichero ME, Runyan DK, Miller WC, Snider LA, Swedo SE: Does group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection increase risk for behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms in children? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158: 848–856, 2004.


232.     Piacentini J, Woods DW, Scahill L, Wilhelm S, Peterson AL, Chang S, Ginsburg GS, Deckersbach T, Dziura J, Levi-Pearl S, Walkup JT: Behavior therapy for children with Tourette disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 303:1929–1937, 2010.


233.     Pierce LR, Jain N: Risks associated with the use of intravenous immunoglobulin. Transfus Med Rev 17:241–251, 2003.


234.     Pohl D, Benseler S: Systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Handb Clin Neurol 112:1243–1252, 2013.
235.     Pringsheim T, Steeves T: Pharmacological treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 13:CD007990, 2011.


236.     Prosperini L, et al. Functional and structural brain plasticity enhanced by motor and cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis. Neural Plasticity 481574, 2015.


237.     Rappold LC, Denk K, Enk AH, Hadaschik EN: Comparison of highdose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in a 5% and a 10% solution does not reveal a significantly different spectrum of side-effects. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 30:e186–e188, 2015.


238.     Ray, P.C., Tas, D.A., Gul Celik, G., et al., 2013. Periodic fever and hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome in a boy with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. J. Child. Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 23 (May(4)), 302–304. 0129. PubMed PMID: 23647138.


239.     Riedel M, Straube A, Schwarz MJ, Wilske B, Mu¨ller N: Lyme disease presenting as Tourette’s syndrome. Lancet 351:418–419, 1998.


240.     Rolf L, Muris AH, Hupperts R, Damoiseaux J: Vitamin D effects on B cell function in autoimmunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1317:84–91, 2014.


241.     Ross CA, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, Del Valle HB (eds). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. Washington (DC): National Academies Press, 2011.


242.     Rostasy K, Wilken B, Baumann M, Muller-Deile K, Bieber I, Gartner J, Moller P, Angelini P, Hero B: High dose pulsatile dexamethasone therapy in children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Neuropediatrics 37:291–295, 2006.


243.     Rotstein DL, Healy BC, Malik MT, Carruthers RL, Musallam AJ, Kivisakk P, Weiner HL, Glanz B, Chitnis T: Effect of vitamin D on MS activity by disease-modifying therapy class. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2:e167, 2015.


244.     Ruperto N, Nikishina I, Pachanov ED, Shachbazian Y, Prieur AM, Mouy R, Joos R, Zulian F, Schwarz R, Artamonova V, Emminger W, Bandeira M, Buoncompagni A, Foeldvari I, Falcini F, Baildam E, Kone-Paut I, Alessio M, Gerloni V, Lenhardt A, Martini A, Hanft G, Sigmund R, Simianer S: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of two doses of meloxicam compared with naproxen in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Short- and long-term efficacy and safety results. Arthritis Rheum 52:563–572, 2005.


245.     Ruscio, A.M., Stein, D.J., Chiu, W.T., et al., 2010. The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the national comorbidity survey replication. Mol. Psychiatry 15 (January (1)), 53–63. PubMed PMID: 18725912; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC2797569. eng.


246.     Sadhasivam, S., Litman, R.S., 2006. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections – anesthetic implications and literature review. Paediatr. Anaesth. 16 (May (5)), 573–577. ttp:// PubMed PMID: 16677269.


247.     Saggese G, Vierucci F, Boot AM, Czech-Kowalska J, Weber G, Camargo CA Jr, Mallet E, Fanos M, Shaw NJ, Holick MF: Vitamin D in childhood and adolescence: An expert position statement. Eur J Pediatr 174:565–576, 2015.


248.     Sankaranarayanan, A., John, J.K., 2003. Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS): a case report. Natl. Med. J. India 16 (1), 22–23. SBU, 2014a. Mall För Kvalitetsgranskning av Randomiserade Studier.


249.     Saslaw MS, Jablon JM, Jenks SA, Branch CC: b-hemolytic streptococci in tonsillar tissue. The efficacy of penicillin. Am J Dis Child 103:19–26, 1962.


250.     Sastre J, Quijano LD, Novalbos A, Hernandez G, Cuesta J, de las Heras M, Lluch M, Fernandez M: Clinical cross-reactivity between amoxicillin and cephadroxil in patients allergic to amoxicillin and with good tolerance of penicillin. Allergy 51:383–386, 1996.


251.     Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malayeri A: A preliminary randomized double-blind clinical trial on the efficacy of celecoxib as an adjunct in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 189:403–406, 2011.


252.     SBU, 2014b. Mall För Kvalitetsgranskning av Observationsstudier. Available from:


253.     Scahill, L., Riddle, M.A., McSwiggin-Hardin, M., et al., 1997. Children’s Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale: reliability and validity. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry 36 (June (6)), 844–852. PubMed PMID: 9183141.


254.     Schubert, S., Fegert, J.M., Libal, G., 2006. Disappearance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms after oral penicillin therapy. Nervenheilkunde. 25 (7), 573–576.


255.     Shaffer D, Gould MS, Brasic J, Ambrosini P, Fisher P, Bird H, Aluwahlia S: A children’s global assessment scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:1228–1231, 1983.


256.     Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM: Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 126:e557–e564, 2010.


257.     Shaikh N, Swaminathan N, Hooper EG: Accuracy and precision of the signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis in children: A systematic review. J Pediat 160:487–493, 2012.


258.     Shalbafan M, Mohammadinejad P, Shariat SV, Alavi K, Zeinoddini A, Salehi M, Askari N, Akhondzadeh S: Celecoxib as an adjuvant to fluvoxamine in moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 48:136–140, 2015.


259.     Sharma S, Jaffe A, Dixon G: Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics in respiratory disease: Therapeutic implications for asthma and cystic fibrosis. Paediatr Drugs 9:107–118, 2007.


260.     Sharma, S., Vaish, S., Chopra, S., et al., 2012. Paedatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection in an indian adolescent – a case report. J. Indian Assoc. For. Child. Adolescent Ment. Health. 8 (3), 67–73.


261.     Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, Gerber MA, Kaplan EL, Lee G, Martin JM, Van Beneden C: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 55:1279–1282, 2012.


262.     Silva-Costa C, Fria˜es A, Ramirez M, Melo-Cristino J: Macrolideresistant Streptococcus pyogenes: Prevalence and treatment strategies. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 13:615–628, 2015.


263.     Singer HS, Mascaro-Blanco A, Alvarez K, Morris-Berry C, Kawikova I, Ben-Pazi H, Thompson CB, Ali SF, Kaplan EL, Cunningham MW: Neuronal antibody biomarkers for Sydenham’s chorea identify a new group of children with chronic recurrent episodic acute exacerbations of tic and obsessive compulsive symptoms following a streptococcal infection. PLoS One 10:e0120499, 2015.


264.     Singer, H.S., Gilbert, D.L., Wolf, D.S., et al., 2012. Moving from PANDAS to CANS. J. Pediatr. 160 (5), 725–731.


265.     Slattery MJ, Dubbert BK, Allen AJ, Leonard HL, Swedo SE, Gourley MF: Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Psychiatry 65:301–306, 2004.
266.     Slavin RG, Spector SL, Bernstein IL, Kaliner MA, Kennedy DW, Virant FS, Wald ER, Khan DA, Blessing-Moore J, Lang DM, Nicklas RA, Oppenheimer JJ, Portnoy JM, Schuller DE, Tilles SA, Borish L, Nathan RA, Smart BA, Vandewalker ML; American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The diagnosis and management of sinusitis: A practice parameter update. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116(6 Suppl):S13–S47, 2005.


267.     Smit PW, Lindholm L, Lyytika¨inen O, Jalava J, Pa¨ta¨ri-Sampo A, Vuopio J: Epidemiology and emm types of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Finland, 2008–2013. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 34:2131–2136, 2015.


268.     Smith T: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections: Diagnosis based on immunofluorescence titer of IgG and IgM antibodies. Mayo Clin Proc 61:830–831, 1986.


269.     Snider LA, Lougee L, Slattery M, Grant P, Swedo SE: Antibiotic prophylaxis with azithromycin or penicillin for childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Biol Psychiatry 57:788–792, 2005.


270.     Sobel RE, Lovell DJ, Brunner HI, Weiss JE, Morris PW, Gottlieb BS, Chalom EC, Jung LK, Onel KB, Petiniot L, Goldsmith DP, Nanda K, Shishov M, Abramsky S, Young JP, Giannini EH: Safety of celecoxib and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Results of the phase 4 registry. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 12:29, 2014.


271.     Sokol, M.S., 2000. Infection-triggered anorexia nervosa in children: clinical description of four cases. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 10 (Summer (2)), 133–145. PubMed PMID: 10933123.


272.     Sokol, M.S., Gray, N.S., 1997. Case study: an infection-triggered, autoimmune subtype of anorexia nervosa. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry 36 (August (8)), 1128–1133. PubMed PMID: 9256593.


273.     Spartz E, Freeman GM, Brown KD, Farhadian B, Thienemann M, Frankovich J: Course of neuropsychiatric symptoms after introduction or removal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A pediatric observational study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017. [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0179


274.     Srivastava, M., Shankar, G., Tripathi, M.N., 2012. Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): A case report. J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 5 (6), 1298–1300.
275.     Stewart, S.E., Geller, D.A., Jenike, M., et al., 2004. Long-term outcome of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis and qualitative review of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scand. 110 (July (1)), 4–13. PubMed PMID: 15180774; Eng.


276.     Storch EA, Murphy TK, Geffken GR, Mann G, Adkins J, Merlo LJ, Duke D, Munson M, Swaine Z, Goodman WK: Cognitivebehavioral therapy for PANDAS-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: Findings from a preliminary waitlist controlled open trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1171–1178, 2006.


277.     Sukhodolsky DG, Gorman BS, Scahill L, Findley D, McGuire J: Exposure and response prevention with or without parent management training for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by disruptive behavior: A multiple-baseline across responses design study. J Anxiety Disord 27:298–305, 2013.


278.     Swedo SE, Leckman JF, Rose NR: Modifying the PANDAS criteria to describe PANS (pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). Pediatr Ther 2:1–8, 2012.


279.     Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Garvey M, Mittleman B, Allen AJ, Perlmutter S, Lougee L, Dow S, Zamkoff J, Dubbert BK: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: Clinical description of the first 50 cases. Am J Psychiatry 155:264–271, 1998.


280.     Swedo SE, Seidlitz J, Kovacevic M, Latimer ME, Hommer R, Lougee L, Grant P: Clinical presentation of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections in research and community settings. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:26–30, 2015.


281.     Swedo, S.E., Leonard, H.L., Garvey, M., et al., 1998. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: clinical description of the first 50 cases. Am. J. Psychiatry 155 (2), 264–271.


282.     Swedo, S.E., Leonard, H.L., Schapiro, M.B., et al., 1993. Sydenham’s chorea: physical and psychological symptoms of St Vitus dance. Pediatrics 91 (Aprail (4)), 706–713 PubMed PMID: 8464654; Eng.


283.     Swedo, S.E., Rapoport, J.L., Cheslow, D.L., et al., 1989. High prevalence of obsessivecompulsive symptoms in patients with sydenham’s chorea. Am. J. Psychiatry 146 (February (2)), 246–249. PubMed PMID: 2912267; Eng.


284.     Szczepiorkowski ZM, Bandarenko N, Kim HC, Linenberger ML, Marques MB, Sarode R, Schwartz J, Shaz BH, Weinstein R, Work A, Winters JL: Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice: Evidence-based approach from the Apheresis Applications Committee of the American Society for Apheresis. J Clin Apheresis 22:106–175, 2007.


285.     Tager FA, Fallon BA, Keilp J, Rissenberg M, Jones CR, Liebowitz MR: Acontrolled study of cognitive deficits in children with chronic Lyme disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13:500–507, 2001.


286.     Team POTSP, 2004. Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the pediatric OCD treatment study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. Jama 292 (October (16)), 1969–1976. PubMed PMID: 15507582; eng.


287.     Thienemann M, Murphy T, Leckman J, Shaw R, Williams K, MD, Kapphahn C, Frankovich J, Geller D, Bernstein G, Chang K, Elia J, Hommer R, Swedo SE: Clinical management of Pediatric Acute onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Part I–psychiatric and behavioral interventions. J Child Adolesc Psychopharm 2017 [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0145.


288.     Thienemann M, Murphy T, Williams K, Leckman J, Shaw R, Geller D, Kapphahn C, Frankovich J, Elia J, Chang K, Hommer R, Swedo S: Clinical management of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS): Part I-Psychiatric and behavioral interventions. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017. [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/cap.2016.0145


289.     Thornby KA, Henneman A, Brown DA: Evidence-based strategies to reduce intravenous immunoglobulin-induced headaches. Ann Pharmacother 49:715–726, 2015.


290.     Thornton KA, Marı´n C, Mora-Plazas M, Villamor E: Vitamin D deficiency associated with increased incidence of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:585–593, 2013.


291.     Thurman KA, Walter ND, Schwartz SB, Mitchell SL, Dillon MT, Baughman AL, Deutscher M, Fulton JP, Tongren JE, Hicks LA, Winchell JM: Comparison of laboratory diagnostic procedures for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in community outbreaks. Clin Infect Dis 48:1244–1249, 2009.


292.     Titulaer MJ, McCracken L, Gabilondo I, Armangue T, Glaser C, Iizuka T, Honig LS, Benseler SM, Kawachi I, Martinez-Hernandez E, Aguilar E, Gresa-Arribas N, Ryan-Florance N, Torrents A, Saiz A, Rosenfeld MR, Balice-Gordon R, Graus F, Dalmau J: Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: An observational cohort study. Lancet Neurol 12:157–165, 2013.


293.     Toufexis MD, DeOleo C, Elia J, Murphy TK: A link between perianal strep and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 26:164–168, 2014.


294.     Toufexis MD, Hommer R, Gerardi DM, Grant P, Rothschild L, D’Souza P, Williams K, Leckman J, Swedo SE, Murphy TK: Disordered eating and food restrictions in children with PANDAS/PANS. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 25:48–56, 2015.


295.     Tucker DM, Leckman JF, Scahill L, Wilf GE, LaCamera R, Cardona L, Cohen P, Heidmann S, Goldstein J, Judge J, Snyder E, Bult A, Peterson BS, King R, Lombroso P: A putative poststreptococcal case of OCD with chronic tic disorder, not otherwise specified. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1684–1691, 1996.


296.     Turner-Stokes L, Pick A, Nair A, Disler PB, Wade DT: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for acquired brain injury in adults of working age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD004170, 2015.


297.     U.S. Department of Education. Protecting Students With Disabilities Frequently Asked Questions About Section 504 and the Education of Children with Disabilities. Available at offices/list/ocr/504faq.html Accessed December 11, 2016.


298.     Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H: Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 91:1255–1260, 2010.


299.     Van Mater H: Pediatric inflammatory brain diseases: A diagnostic approach. Curr Opin Rheumatol 26:553–561, 2014.


300.     Vernino S, Geschwind M, Boeve B: Autoimmune encephalopathies. Neurologist 13:140–147, 2007.


301.     Villasen˜or-Sierra A, Katahira E, Jaramillo-Valdivia AN, Barajas-Garcı´a Mde L, Bryant A, Morfı´n-Otero R, Ma´rquez-Dı´az F, Tinoco JC, Sa´nchez-Corona J, Stevens DL: Phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from invasive and non-invasive infections from Mexico and the USA during 1999–2010. Int J Infect Dis 16:e178–e181, 2012.


302.     Vitaliti, G., Trifiletti, R.R., Falsaperla, R., et al., 2014. A new clinical feature associated with familial early-onset of dystonic-guttural tics: an unusual diagnosis of PANDAS. J. Pediatr Neurosci. 9 (January (1)), 79–81. 131497. PubMed PMID: 24891915; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4040045.


303.     Wald ER, Applegate KE, Bordley C, Darrow DH, Glode MP, Marcy SM, Nelson CE, Rosenfeld RM, Shaikh N, Smith MJ, Williams PV, Weinberg ST; American Academy of Pediatrics: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of acute bacterial sinusitis in children aged 1 to 18 years. Pediatrics 132:e262–e280, 2013.


304.     Walker AR, Tani LY, Thompson JA, Firth SD, Veasy LG, Bale JF: Rheumatic chorea: Relationship to systemic manifestations and response to corticosteroids. J Pediatr 151:679–683, 2007.


305.     Wallace CA, Giannini EH, Spalding SJ, Hashkes PJ, O’Neil KM, Zeft AS, Szer IS, Ringold S, Brunner HI, Schanberg LE, Sundel RP, Milojevic DS, Punaro MG, Chira P, Gottlieb BS, Higgins GC, Ilowite NT, Kimura Y, Johnson A, Huang B, Lovell DJ: Clinically inactive disease in a cohort of children with new-onset polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with early aggressive therapy: Time to achievement, total duration, and predictors. J Rheumatol 41:1163–1170, 2014.


306.     Wannamaker LW, Ayoub EM: Antibody titers in acute rheumatic fever. Circulation 21:598–614, 1960.


307.     Weinstein R: Therapeutic apheresis in neurological disorders: A survey of the evidence in support of current category I and II indications for therapeutic plasma exchange. J Clin Apheresis 23:196–201, 2008.


308.     Weisman H, Qureshi IA, Leckman JF, Scahill L, Bloch MH: Systematic review: Pharmacological treatment of tic disorders—efficacy of antipsychotic and alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37:1162–1171, 2013.


309.     Westwell-Roper, C., Williams, K. A., Samuels, J., et al., 2019.  Immune-Related Comorbidities in Childhood-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder:  Lifetime Prevalence in the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Collaborative Genetics Association Study.  Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 1-10.


310.     Wile DJ, Pringsheim TM: Behavior therapy for tourette syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Treat Options Neurol 15:385–395, 2013.


311.     Williams KA, Swedo SE, Farmer CA, Grantz H, Grant PJ, D’Souza P, Hommer R, Katsovich L, King RA, Leckman JF: Randomized, controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 55:860–867, 2016.


312.     Williams KA, Swedo SE: Post-infectious autoimmune disorders: Sydenham’s chorea, PANDAS and beyond. Brain Res 1617:144–154, 2015.


313.     Wong PH, White KM: Impact of immunoglobulin therapy in pediatric disease: A review of immune mechanisms. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 51:303–314, 2016.


314.     Xiao L, Xing C, Yang Z, Xu S, Wang M, Du H, Liu K: Huang Z: Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of childhood acute respiratory infections: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr 114:1026–1034, 2015.


315.     Yaddanapudi K, Hornig M, Serge R, De Miranda J, Baghban A, Villar G, Lipkin WI: Passive transfer of Streptococcus-induced antibodies reproduces behavioral disturbances in a mouse model of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Mol Psychiatry 15:712–726, 2010.


316.     Yildiz I, Unuvar E, Zeybek U, Toptas B, Cacina C, Toprak S, Kilic A, Aydin S: The role of vitamin D in children with recurrent tonsillopharyngitis. Ital J Pediatr 38:25–31, 2012.


317.     Zandman-Goddard G, Krauthammer A, Levy Y, Langevitz P, Shoenfeld Y: Long-term therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin is beneficial in patients with autoimmune diseases. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 42:247–255, 2012.


318.     Zaura E, Brandt BW, Teixeira de Mattos MJ, Buijs MJ, Caspers MPM, Rashid MU, Weintraub A, Nord CE, Savell A, Hu Y, Coates AR, Hubank M, Spratt DA, Wilson M, Keijser BJF, Crielaard W: Same exposure but two radically different responses to antibiotics: Resilience of the salivary microbiome versus long-term microbial shifts in feces. mBio 6:e01693–e1715, 2015.


You can download the full publication list in Word format by clicking on the following link:


Authored by: Dr Tim Ubhi

Published: 7th March 2019

The Children's e-Hospital is a CQC regulated service that allows you to speak to our expert Paediatric Consultants & Dieticians from the comfort of your own home. Book an online consultation and get the advice & treatment you need

Book Now